Η υπερβατολογική αναγωγή του υποκειμένου και η λειτουργία της συνείδησης στην Φαινομενολογία του Edmund Husserl
Μεταπτυχιακή διπλωματική εργασία
KeywordsEdmund Husserl ; Φαινομενολογία ; Husserl Edmund ; Υπερβατολογική αναγωγή ; Λειτουργία της συνείδησης
Phenomenology is basically an ego-theory and initially seeks to understand and describe the ego-structures. The themes of phenomenology are the hiletic data of the monad, as well as the eidos, while the monad is considered as a sphere of meaning. In Husserl’s theory, the ego is given together with the pure conciousness. From the ego springs an “immanent glancing towards” a directedness, which never can be absent. Any awareness we may have is necessarily an intentional awareness, related to its object, by virtue of its “noema”. Phenomenology, according to Husserl himself, is an eidetic and purely intuitive study of the reell and the immanent. The polar ego (das Ich), is completely lacking in content, it doesn’t have components or internal features. The ego is not reell but transcendent, nor an experience, but the subject of experience. Husserl from the knowledge of the monadic ego, which is a transcendental entity and by the addition of other egos, reaches the social ego and finaly the ego-community. Husserl in his theory admits an empirical and a phenomenological ego. The empirical ego is the common mental ego together with the human body, which makes in sum the human person, that we perceive as we perceive an external thing. But Husserl searches the pure, polar ego, which is not identical with the personality or personal determinations, but is the substrate or the pole-centre of the unity. Beginning with the empirical ego Husserl reaches the second ego by means of a reduction. Reduction is a process of abstraction, that remain fixed in the natural realm. The Husserl’s theory clarifies that if we limit the mental ego to its phenomenological content, the latter reduces to a unity of conciousness. So the phenomenological ego is just the empirical ego’s stream of experiense considered in its unity and remains a natural realm. The target is to be found a transcendental subject at work, somewhere “above” or “behind” the stream of human experience. At this first step that Husserl has constituted the unity of conciousness with the trancendental reduction. Gradually phenomenology ceases to be a descriptive phychology and the phenomenological ego is revealed. This is the active subject of conciousness, who lives in all processes of conciousness and it is related through them to all object-poles. This is the ultimately constitutive subjectivity, which precedes everything wordly-human. Husserl doesn’t underestimate the objects of natural experience, but in his theory seeks to confine philosophical attention to the sphere of meaning and in general we would say that he clarifies the notion of pure ego, which is essentially entailed by transcendental consciousness or otherwise conciouscnes is necessarily the “life” of an ego..
Number of pages106 σελ.
FacultyΣχολή Ανθρωπιστικών Επιστημών και Πολιτισμικών Σπουδών
Academic DepartmentΤμήμα Φιλολογίας
Post-graduate programΔιαπανεπιστημιακό και Διατμηματικό Πρόγραμμα Μεταπτυχιακών Σπουδών "Ηθική Φιλοσοφία"
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