Almost 50 years after Munich. The ever-increasing demands of risk management at mega-sporting events. The perspective of both athletes and officials
Μεταπτυχιακή διπλωματική εργασία
Smolarek, Bogumiła Zuzanna
Θεματική επικεφαλίδαOlympics - Safety measures ; Olympics - Athletes ; Terrorism - Prevention - Government policy ; Terrorism - Prevention - International cooperation ; Ολυμπιακοί αγώνες - Μέτρα ασφαλείας ; Ολυμπιακοί αγώνες - Αθλητές ; Τρομοκρατία- Πρόληψη - Κυβερνητική πολιτική ; Τρομοκρατία- Πρόληψη - Διεθνής συνεργασία
Nearly fifty years after the terrorist attack at the Munich Games of 1972, safety became a sensitive topic for the organizers, National Olympic Committees and athletes. Security measures were even more tightened after non sport-related attacks, such as 9/11, which have left their mark on the sport environment. The Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup, and Athletics Championships are among competitions which appeal to a large number of spectators and have an important presence in the international media. The significance of the media was recognized by terrorist groups, who became media savvy, using the exposure of the event to spread and highlight their ideas. The need to control large crowds, the nature of sport events, the introduction of new surveillance technologies became an important part of the bidding process for future candidates of mega -sporting events. The added security measures were seen by some groups as a violation, or abuse, of human rights. The welfare of the athletes, who are very susceptible to terrorism, is one of the major priorities for the organizers of Olympic Games. Therefore, in this research it will be investigated how the athletes, the National Olympic Committees (NOCs) and organizers deal with the notion of terrorism, and to what extent the three groups rely on each other.